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Browse and find Reacting games that can be played in fewer class sessions.



Raising the Eleventh Pilar: The Ratification Debate of 1788

Students sit as delegates to the New York State Ratifying Convention. Eight states have ratified to date, but a ninth is needed to give effect to the Constitution. The central issue of the game is democratic representation and the debate between the federalists and Antifederalists.

3-5 Sessions 11-35 Students 20th Century North America Flashpoints (What's this Mean?)


Paterson, 1913: A Labor Strike in the Progressive Era

New technologies are changing the nation's silk industry, workers are losing ground, labor organizations are offering solutions from reformist to radical. A city's economy hangs in the balance: what will happen? Can you save Paterson and its people?

3-5 Sessions 11-35 Students 20th Century North America Flashpoints (What's this Mean?)


Please note that Reacting Microgames have not yet undergone the extensive editorial and review process that our Flashpoints and Flexble Full-length games have. All microgames can be found on the microgames page


Christians, Pagans, and the Altar of Victory, 384

You are a member of the Roman Senate in 384 AD. Constantine rescinded the old laws prohibiting Christianity, openly favored Christians in staffing the imperial bureaucracy, and established Constantinople as a specifically Christian city. Nevertheless, many Romans remain faithful to the traditional religion, which the Christians dismissively refer to as paganism. The result for much of the fourth century has been domestic turmoil.

4th Century Europe Microgame


Are Atoms Real? 1860 Conference of Chemistry at Karlsruhe

It is the first international chemistry meeting in Karlsruhe, Germany. The assembled scientists represent the who’s who of 19th century science. Much of the conflict in the game centers on the proper formulas for water and carbon oxide and the relative weights of carbon and oxygen. Arguments rely on differing interpretations of a collection of experimental data available in 1860.

19th Century Europe Level 2 Game (STEM)


Athens Besieged: Debating Surrender

Set within the Long Walls of Athens during the winter of 405-404 BCE. In the Fall of 405 Sparta destroyed the Athenian fleet at Aegospotami (near the straits leading to the Black Sea). The Athenian Assembly must determine whether to surrender and relinquish its democracy. The Spartan kings, being advised by various generals in their war council, and by the Delphic Oracle, determine the outcome of the game—and the fate of Athens.

5th Century BCE Europe Microgame


Ban the Jesuits: Jesuits and Their Opponents in the 1700s

Jesuits, Royal Ambassadors, Archbishops, and members of the Crowd have gathered in Rome to decide the fate of the Jesuits. If they are banned, further decisions must be made about what happens to individual Jesuits and the Jesuit schools and property.

18th Century Europe Microgame


British Modernism, 1905

This microgame has been developed to introduce students to ideas at issue in literary modernism, particularly in Britain. It is designed to raise questions about the relationship between Victorian realist narratives and the interventions/innovations that will appear starting in the late nineteenth-century and continuing into the early decades of the twentieth.

20th Century Europe Microgame


Charles VII and the French Estates

Simulates how certain monarchs managed to increase their power at the expense of rival elites (mainly clergy and nobility) during the later Middle Ages. The scene is Paris in the late 1430s. France has been at war with England for nearly a century, and after decades of defeat and humiliation the tide of war seems finally to have changed.

15th Century Europe Microgame


Conclave 1492: The Election of a Renaissance Pope

Students are members of the sacred college of cardinals, princes of the Roman Catholic Church convened in secret to elect the next pope. They must use knowledge of the renaissance church and late-medieval Europe to advance their character's political and religious concerns in pursuit of personal power and (perhaps) the best interests of Christendom.

15th Century Europe Microgame


Eyeball to Eyeball, 1962: The Cuban Missile Crisis

Eyeball to Eyeball has been accepted for publication by the Center for Learning through Games and Simulations, with a target date of the end of 2023. In the interim, Reactors wanting to use the game should contact ray@42ed.games for the game's most current availability.


The Fate of Mary Stuart

Players take the roles of historical figures who attempt to influence the queen to confirm the sentence, pardon Mary, execute her through a different legal process, or maybe even remove her by unsavory means... Politics, religion, private interests, the fragile relationship with Scotland, the war in the Netherlands, and possible war with Spain are all factors that will come into play.

16th Century Europe Microgame


The Fate of John Brown, 1859

In 1859, John Brown gathered a small force and attacked the United States arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia to obtain thousands of weapons, which he planned to distribute to the slaves to free themselves. The plan failed catastrophically, with most of Brown’s force either dead or captured in less than two days. This game is set at a fictitious conference, called to debate whether John Brown should be executed. Most importantly, this game engages students with the nation’s gravest existential crisis, revolving around the place of slavery in America’s future.

19th Century North America Microgame


The Jumonville Incident

Constant struggles between the British and French empires draw in colonists, indigenous populations, and other European powers. Now, a new flashpoint has developed for this rivalry: the Ohio Country. The Jumonville Incident, and thus the French and Indian War, is about to begin. In this microgame, students will take on the roles of figures from all factions in this contested event.

18th Century North America Microgame


Making History: The Breakup Microgame

Two contemporary college students break up. Sources differ regarding the cause. Players discover new ways to sort them, which provides insights and deepens confusion. This microgame is intended to introduce undergraduates to some of the issues involved in the use of primary sources to construct historical narratives.

21st Century Anywhere Microgame


The North Korean Hunger Games: Famine, Rogue Regimes, and the Ethics of Aid. 1995-1998

Students will take on the question of humanitarian assistance in an environment fraught with complications. A wide range of government representatives and aid organizations have gathered to discuss the future of assistance to North Korea. While no one can deny North Korea’s need, students will debate whether North Korea qualifies for aid and how that aid will be distributed.

20th Century Asia International Microgame


The Pluto Debate: The International Astronomical Union Defines a Planet

Students play one of nine astronomers arguing the definition of a planet at a 1999 debate in New York City and a 2006 meeting of the International Astronomical Union. Using scientific precedent and discoveries, students will compare Pluto with other celestial bodies and put scientific ideals into action.

20th and 21st Century North America 1-2 Game Sessions Level 3 Game


Roman Prisoner's Dilemma

This microgame may serve as a companion to the Constantine and the Council of Nicaea game. It is designed to set up the situation leading to two major issues at the Council of Nicaea, the Arian heresy and the Meletian Schism.

4th Century Africa Europe Microgame


The Synod of Worms, 1076

Portions of this page are still under construction, pending more details from the Game Author.

11th Century Europe Microgame


Texas Annexation, 1841

Students are divided into two factions debating the ratification of a treaty of annexation between the United States and the Republic of Texas submitted to the United States Senate in April 1841. The debate takes into consideration questions of Manifest Destiny, imperialism, party politics, slavery, and sectionalism. Students may choose to ratify the treaty as written or endorse alternative proposals submitted during the course of debate.

19th Century North America Microgame

Demo/Conference Games

Please note that these games are not designed for use in classrooms and will not offer the same experience as a full game.


Athens Reconciliation Agreement Conference Game

Chopped-down materials to run the first Athens debate for conferences or recruitment events.

5th Century BCE Europe Microgame


Simplified Chicago, 1968 Conference Game

This is an abbreviated, edited, and altered version of Chicago 1968 intended for use as a demo of Reacting to the Past pedagogy for faculty. It is meant to be used in a 1.5-2 hour session, where participants will spend an hour or so in gameplay. It is suitable for 6-26 players.

20th Century North America Microgame


French Revolution Conference Game

Chopped-down materials to run the first French Revolution debate for conferences or recruitment events.

18th Century Europe Microgame


Confucianism in China Conference Game

This is an abbreviated, edited, and altered version of Confucianism in China 1587 intended for use as a demo of Reacting to the Past pedagogy for faculty.

16th Century Asia Microgame

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